Economic and bio-economic research, consulting and litigation support dealing with ocean-related industries, markets, policies and regulations with special emphasis on commercial fisheries, offshore wind energy, and ocean aquaculture.


Typical Clients/Projects

American Commodities, Incorporated, Expert witness for U.S. seafood importer (plaintiff);  breach of contract/ fraud/ organized crime (RICO)  associated with frozen shrimp products from China routinely exported to the U.S.A. as products of Malaysia in order to circumvent U.S. anti-dumping duties on Chinese shrimp imports.

World Wildlife Fund/Marine Stewardship Council. Market-based incentives to encourage sustainable world fisheries; quantitative indicators to certify that seafood products reaching U.S. markets were sustainably harvested.

NOAA, Office of Habitat Protection. Economic analysis to prioritize and manage habitat protection and restoration strategies; measure economic impacts of endangered species designations; and manage habitat and ecosystem service trading and mitigation.

Lloyd’s of London, Ltd. Measure economic risks of insuring high seas fishing operations; develop settlement offers for fishery-related claims; litigation support and expert witness in legal proceedings involving claims of insured fishery-related economic losses.

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King and Associates Inc. (KAA) is an ocean-oriented economic research and consulting firm founded in 1982 by Dennis M. King. Dr. King holds a Ph.D. in marine resource economics, an MS degree in natural resource economics, and a BBA in corporate finance, and has over 40 years of experience managing interdisciplinary research projects that involve comparing costs, benefits, risks, and impacts of ocean-related investments and regulations. Under Dr. King’s direction KAA also provides mediation and litigation support services to resolve disputes regarding the pricing and labeling of seafood, compensation for ocean impacts, fishery related economic losses and enforcement/compliance issues; and environmental trading and mitigation.
The firm serves a wide range of industry, government, and not-for-profit clients world-wide from offices in Plymouth, MA (USA).

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Typical Reports/Publications by Dennis King

Ocean Health and the Economics of Ballast Water Regulations, International Network of Environmental Compliance and Enforcement (INECE), Washington, D.C.

Economic Benefits of the Chesapeake Inundation Prediction System (CIPS), with P. Hagan; for NOAA, National Weather Service

Economic Costs and Environmental Benefits of Wireless Sensor-based Horticulture/Greenhouse Irrigation Networks  in Horticulture Technology, Vol. 23 

Preview of Global Ballast Water Treatment Markets, (with P. Hagan), et. al, Journal of Marine Engineering and Technology , Vol. 12

Criteria for Targeting Market – based Initiatives to Promote Sustainable Ocean Fisheries; World Wildlife Fund(Washington, D.C.) and Marine Stewardship Council(London).

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Research, Consulting, and Litigation Support


Dennis M. King
Dennis M. King, Ph. D.
Marine Resource Economist
Director, King & Associates, Inc.

Specializing in:​

  • Fisheries, aquaculture and seafood markets.
  • Marine bio-invasions and ship ballast water and hull fouling problems
  • Ecosystem restoration and environmental trading and mitigation
  • Economic impacts of ocean-based industries and markets
  • Benefit Cost Analysis (BCA) and Cost Effectiveness Analysis (CEA)
  • Expert Litigation support involving economic losses and disputes related to:
    commercial fishing operations, fish & seafood labeling and pricing, offshore space/use conflicts, regulatory impacts and compliance costs, environmental mitigation and trading, habitat and ecosystem service equivalency